*Season goes from December to February*

*ENSO Strenth based off Oceanic-Nino Index*

Colors: Red= Warm or Postiive Phase, Blue= Cold or Negative Phase, Green= Neutral Phase

Index Values

Philadelphia, PA
Season Snowfall total Climate Pattern Season Average
NAO PNA AO PDO EPO ENSO
SOI Nino 3.4 Strength
2009/2010 78.7" -1.673 0.723 -3.422 0.58 1.07 -10.53 1.48 Moderate El Nino
2013/2014 62.9" 0.86 -0.28 0.183 0.09 -0.88 3.8 -0.65 Weak La Nina
1995/1996 54.0" -0.62 0.20 -1.055 0.50 -0.02 1.3 -0.90 Weak La Nina
1960/1961 49.0" 0.307 1.073 -0.409 0.593 -0.11 3.5 -0.26 Neutral
2002/2003 44.3" -0.053 1.203 -0.645 1.98 0.62 -6.7 1.16 Moderate El Nino
2010/2011 44.0" -0.677 -0.69 -0.913 -0.99 0.21 23.1 -1.51 Moderate La Nina
1977/1978 42.6" -0.847 0.46 -1.200 0.37 0.80 -12.7 0.56 Weak El Nino
1966/1967 37.8" 0.007 -0.08 -0.266 -0.23 -0.89 7.8 -0.48 Neutral
1978/1979 37.7" -1.207 -1.077 -1.303 -0.78 0.22 0.6 -0.21 Neutral
1982/1983 33.1" 0.947 1.08 0.173 0.65 -0.53 -28.4 2.15 Strong El Nino





Washington, DC
Season Snowfall total Climate Pattern Season Average
NAO PNA AO PDO EPO ENSO
SOI Nino 3.4 Strength
2009/2010 56.1" -1.673 0.723 -3.422 0.577 1.07 -10.53 1.48 Moderate El Nino
1995/1996 40.3" -0.62 0.20 -1.055 0.50 -0.02 1.3 -0.90 Weak La Nina
2002/2003 40.3" -0.053 1.203 -0.645 1.98 0.62 -6.7 1.16 Moderate El Nino
1960/1961 40.3" 0.307 1.073 -0.409 0.593 -0.11 3.5 -0.26 Neutral
1966/1967 36.4" 0.007 -0.08 -0.266 -0.233 -0.89 7.8 -0.48 Neutral
1978/1979 34.6" -1.207 -1.077 -1.303 -0.78 0.22 0.6 -0.21 Neutral
1986/1987 31.1" -0.297 1.007 -0.854 1.80 -0.02 -10.8 1.13 Moderate El Nino
1957/1958 29.5" -0.493 0.35 -0.946 0.11 -0.72 -9.1 1.56 Strong El Nino
1965/1966 28.4" -0.587 -0.73 -1.502 -0.22 0.19 -4.8 1.09 Moderate El Nino
1982/1983 27.6" 0.947 1.08 0.173 0.65 -0.53 -28.4 2.15 Strong El Nino